Regular patrons of Melbourne food and beverage
dispensaries would have noticed a distinct increase in young people with Irish,
English, French, Scandinavian, Spanish, or other exotic accents, serving them
of recent time. Many of these fresh faced foreigners have come to escape the
economic doldrums of Europe for a time, drawn by glowing international reports
of our prosperity. It is a contemporary situation that has a little explored
nineteenth century precedence, yet both share the same impetus: natural
resources. In 1851 rich seams of gold were discovered in Victoria. When the
news of this hit international headlines, people from all around the world set
sail for the antipodes to try their luck at gold mining. The great majority of
them disembarked in Melbourne to begin their journey to the goldfields in
central Victoria, but some divined that more assured profit could be made in
this burgeoning colonial metropolis rather than leaving it to providence on the
diggings. With so many people passing through Melbourne, and successful miners
returning there looking to show off newly acquired wealth, the provision of
food and drink to them offered many ‘golden’ opportunities.
The stuff of our current resources boom is of different colour and located much further away—although it is now quicker to fly to Kununurra than it was to walk to the goldfields from Melbourne in the 1850s—but the multiplier effect of this boom contributes to many of us having a good enough disposable income to spend regularly enjoying ourselves in bars and restaurants. It is this modern ‘gold rush’ that has again attracted people to Melbourne—perhaps just to earn a modest living rather than make their fortune—to work in a vibrant hospitality industry begun more than a hundred and fifty years ago by other young (and youngish) people from the other side of the world. So let’s meet some of Melbourne’s hospitality pioneers (and pat yourself on the back for picking up on other contemporary parallels in this story).
By 1853 the ‘Yankee’ Samuel Ross had opened the up-market Criterion Hotel at 38 - 40 Collins Street West, which reportedly served ‘excellent cuisine’ in the Anglo-French style of the nineteenth century London based French celebrity chef, Alexis Soyer. Ross’ nasally twang would not have been a lone one in the first floor dining room of his hotel as he employed American barmen who performed skilful tricks with glasses and bottles when mixing cocktails for patrons, and other of his entrepreneurial countrymen had come out to see what they could make of the gold boom. It was Americans who introduced ice, cable cars (aka trams) and elevators to Melbourne. The ice was cut from the frozen lakes of Massachusetts, packed in sawdust, and sent south on fast clipper ships, conveniently refrigerating companion shipments of crayfish and champagne to satisfy the demand for luxury products in the cashed up colony. The Criterion bar was the repository of the first shipment of Massachusetts ice to arrive in Melbourne. When a sign —ICE-ICE-ICE—was hung out over the portal of the hotel to announce its arrival the bar was besieged with patrons eager to enjoy the novelty of a truly cold beverage.
In 1852, 25-year-old Frenchman Antoine Fauchery arrived in Melbourne en-route for the goldfields. He considered stopping in the town to take up a job as a hotel cook as the wages on offer were lucrative due to a shortage of staff to work in the numerous eating establishments that had opened . In the end it was his lack of English rather than his lack of culinary skill that decided him against this option. He returned to the city two years later from the diggings with sixty hard-won pounds in his pocket. He expended this setting up the Café-Estaminet Français in a small house at 76 Little Bourke Street where he served lunches, cold suppers, wine, brandy and beer. The place, furnished with sofas and a billiard table, quickly became the rendezvous for Swiss, Italians, Canadians, Mauritians and ‘other such nationalities ending in –ian’ in Melbourne. Fauchery did not hold a licence to sell liquor but the police reportedly turned a blind eye to this as his patrons were quite and never unruly: unlike the rowdy revellers that packed the larger hotels.
I think we do fail to recognize how young many of the people were —and it was mainly men— who came to Melbourne during the gold rush years, as the pictures we see of them formally posed in their well-buttoned up clothing and bushy beards make them appear much older to our eyes. A case in point is the portrait of Felix Spiers and Christopher Pond below (source).
Spiers was 23 when he arrived in Melbourne in 1856, where he teamed up with, the somewhat more mature, 29 year old Christopher Pond and opened the Café de Paris at 71-75 Bourke Street. Their English accents were not ‘foreign’ but Pond was from Essex, and Spiers had grown up between London and France so each would have had a different vocal intonation. Because our modern experience of ‘diversity’ has been shaped by living in a city that is home to people of many varied ethnic backgrounds we seem to have limited our understanding of it to just that, and accept the premise that colonial Australia was ‘mono-cultural’ and therefore lacking in diversity: this is far from the truth. Colonial Melbournians did not see themselves as all the ‘same’, they indentified as English, Irish, Welsh and Scottish; Catholic, Protestant, Quaker and Jew; teetotal and drinkers, and might have considered themselves as different to each other as a German would from a Spaniard. The accented voices of men —for women were not allowed—of all these backgrounds, joined by those of the French waiters who recited the menu to customers, would have filled the air of the grand dining room of the Café de Paris with a multi-tenored hum.
‘Important to mercantile men, professional men, men of leisure, men of toil, important to all’’
Thus ran the opening advertisement for the Café de Paris in June 1858. This pitch for patrons was to men of all classes—the trader, the lawyer, the gentleman, the labourer —because strong class divisions were another form of endogenous diversity amongst colonial Melburnians. A fancy restaurant such as the Strand in London — on which Spiers and Pond modeled their Melbourne establishment —would never have so blatantly encouraged the patronage of shopkeepers and bank clerks. It was unlikely that these men could have afforded to sit at its tables anyway as there was a distinct correlation between money and class in Britain. Despite the best efforts of the socially advantaged in Melbourne to maintain such distinctions the Victorian gold rush had leveled the economic playing field. If a man had the money, no matter how he had come by it, Spiers and Pond were not shy of publically welcoming his business. The Criterion was also ‘caste’ free: Cuthbert Featherstonhaugh, newly arrived in Melbourne from England, was quite taken aback to see the man who had carted his luggage from the dock to his lodgings taking his dinner in the up-market surrounds of the Criterion.
While money could buy a nouveaux riche man a bowl of real turtle soup, a ‘choice’ steak or chop, broiled before him on the ‘colossal’ coal-fired grill that was a feature of the Café de Paris dining room, by a chef with a ‘continental’ accent; several glasses of good Bordeaux, perhaps recommended by Spiers himself who was also a wine merchant; and a cup of café au lait —equal to that found in the ‘city on the banks of the Seine’—at the Café de Paris, it could not buy him ‘breeding’. And what Melbourne’s self made men wanted most was to be considered respectable and civilised, or well-bred, but they could not learn the subtleties of etiquette and table manners directly from their social superior,s because they would not have them at their domestic dining tables. They could though, because they had money, dine at the Café de Paris and there start to learn how to progress, as one enamoured patron commented, in the ‘art of surrounding [yourself] with the elegances and comforts of life’. In the dining room of the Café the self-made man could, by observing the dining practices and etiquette of the upper- class gentlemen at the next table, gain an education in how to behave and eat and drink in the most ‘civilised’ way. By opening their doors to ‘all ‘Spiers and Pond, and Ross, contributed to the leveling of social distinctions and to the development of the egalitarian ethos of Australian society.
Ross, Fauchery and Spiers and Pond had all returned to their respective native lands by the early1860s but they left behind the foundations of a hospitality industry that was enlarged upon by other young men of foreign birth as Melbourne continued on its gold money fuelled trajectory towards the booming metropolis it was to be in the 1880s. It will be interesting to see how our current cohort of young European émigrés might influence our modern eating and drinking habits.
Malabar Coast fish kofte with coconut sauce
500g white fish fillets
½ tsp turmeric
1 ½ tsp white vinegar
3 shallots, grated or minced
2 green chilies, finely chopped
2 tsp ginger paste
2 tsp dried coconut
the zest of one lime
1 tbsp garlic paste
2 tsp ginger paste
1 tsp cumin seeds
I red onion, grated
1 tsp white poppy seeds ground to a paste*
½ cup yoghurt
½ cup thick coconut milk
fresh coriander leaves
vegetable oil for cooking
To make the kofte
Cut the fish into chunks. Mix the turmeric and vinegar with a little salt. Marinate the fish in the vinegar mix for 30 minutes.
Drain the fish and process it in a food processor with all the remaining ingredients. Do this on the pulse setting as you want the fish to retain some texture; it should come away from the sides of the processor jug and form a large ball (just as dough does)
Shape into golf-ball size balls gently between the palms of your hands and then slightly flatten them so that are more disc like.
Place in the refrigerator for 30 minutes.
You can choose to gently shallow fry or steam the kofte. Set aside when cooked.
To make the sauce
Mix the garlic and ginger pastes with a little water to make a paste.
Heat 2 tbsp of oil in a wok or a heavy based pan over a medium-high heat. When hot add the cumin seeds and allow them to ‘pop’ then mix in the onion and stir until it softens a little. Mix in the garlic and ginger and the poppy seed paste and stir for 2 minutes. Stir in the salt and then the yoghurt and stir for 1 minute.
Stir in the coconut milk. Reduce the heat to medium and cook the sauce for 10 minutes. Stir the butter into the sauce.
Just before serving slide the kofte into the sauce and allow to warm through. Serve garnished with fresh coriander leaves.
* White poppy seeds are available from some Indian grocery stores and can be difficult to find. If you can’t get any please do not substitute black poppy seeds – these are not the same thing and they make the sauce look like black sludge. The best substitute is raw cashews or blanched almonds.